About one year ago or so, I started a project on consumer’s fraud protection issue, especially on how to protect consumers from falling prey to phishing emails – the emails sent by scammers to obtain senstive information such as password, credit card number. How to model consumer’s response to the scam? Natually I would assume that conusmers have limited attention. That is, paying attention is effortful and costly. More effort the consumer exerts, the more accurate information the consumer will acquire.